The Egyptian age, almost thirty-three centuries ago, became success of ancient Egyptian civilization partly from its ability to the conditions of the Nile River Valley. Rich in building and decorative stone, copper and lead ores, gold, and semiprecious stones, all of which could be found in the Nile River Valley. These natural resources allowed the ancient Egyptians to build monuments, sculpt statues, make tools, and fashion jewelry.
High-quality building stones were abundant: the ancient Egyptians quarried limestone all along the Nile Valley, granite from Aswan, and basalt and sandstone from the wadis of the eastern desert. Deposits of decorative stones such as porphyry, greywacke, alabaster, and carnelian dotted the eastern desert and were collected even before the First Dynasty.